Key aspects and definitions

Some key aspects and words often used in BIOWATER are briefly explained below, although we do not aim at providing complete definitions:


The green shift

The green shift is a common word for the expected societal transformation from a fossil based economy to bioeconomy. Due to the green shift, current land use and management may change. Both agricultural and forestry practices may intensify in the Nordic countries, and in combination with climate change this can have far-reaching and long-lasting consequences for both rural and downstream urban areas.


The term bioeconomy comprises the use of renewable biological resources from land and sea – such as crops, forests, fish, animals and micro-organisms – and effective bioprocesses to support sustainable production of food, materials and energy.

Ecosystem services

Freshwater ecosystems can serve us humans in many ways, for example as providers of food and energy, drinking water supply, and/or serve as sites for recreation and sports.


Biogeochemistry is the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment. Biogeochemistry concerns the cycles of chemical elements such as carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen, including their interactions with living organisms. How are these elements transported through the biological and geological systems, in space and through time?